The vehicle-carried three-dimensional air surveillance radar system 36D6-M

The vehicle-carried three-dimensional air surveillance radar system 36D6-M (NATO reported name Tin Shield) is designed for applications such as state-of-the-art computerised air defence systems and anti-air guided missile suites. The range of the radar’s prime functions includes the detection of low-flying targets protected with active/passive jamming screens, and also the performance of air traffic control - commercial as well as military. This design culminated multiyear development effort by the Iskra Research-and-Production Complex to improve and upgrade two of the world’s most commonly used radar systems 19Zh6 and 35D6, with due regard for the lessons learned from the systems’ operation in combat. The 36D6-M radar carries out initial airspace scanning, performs friend-or-foe identification, discriminates the higher threats, carries out automatic tracking of detected targets, provides target data generation for air defence weapons or anti-aircraft guided missile control systems, and, if required, it can operate as an autonomous control post.

The 36D6-M radar design provides advantages as follow:

  • increased chances of detecting small-size air targets (including low-speed tangentially moving targets) and also hovering helicopters;
  • high target coordinate measurement precision;
  • enhanced resistance to enemy jamming attempts;
  • the capability to determine azimuth and elevation bearings of enemy active jamming dispensers;
  • the capability to automatically match target signals against a library of signals stored in the memory of the integrated friend or foe identification subsystem; the capability of relaying target designation and radar output information via narrowband data links;
  • high reliability and excellent mobility performance capabilities;
  • high stability of the true-coherence transmitter;
  • moving target detection PC-based capabilities provided by a unique Doppler system. The upgrade package for the 36D6 radar system includes enhancements as follows:
  • extended target detection range;
  • enhanced target tracking data processing capability;
  • improved operator’s working conditions;
  • integration of friend-or-foe identification equipment complying with NATO standards (MK-X, MK-XII);
  • a broader range of performance capabilities;
  • reduced maintenance cost;
  • service life extension by ten to fifteen years past the radar’s intended life;
  • implementation of a variety of interfaces;
  • integration of customer-specific data links and data relay patterns.

The enhancements listed above and qualitative improvements in the system’s performance capabilities are made possible by the use of improved receiving data links, the introduction of newly-designed transistorized low-noise amplifiers, and the use of an upgraded transmitter. The enhancements also include new computing system based on COTS components and subassemblies; advanced auto tracking algorithms and colour dot-matrix display indicators.

The upgrade also includes a GPS receiver and 25- 20% increase in the radar’s scanning performance capability, as well as the capability enabling radar data to be delivered to computer-assisted control systems in the ASTERIX format or a customer-specific format.

Operating frequency range S

(2,700…2,900 MHz)

Instrumented range, km

90, 180, 360

Detection range for low-fl ying targets with RCS = 1m2


at 50 m, km


at 100m, km


at 1000 m, km

110 – 115

Detection range for low-fl ying targets with RCS=0.1m2 (cruise missile): 


at 50 m, km






Rotation rate, rpm

6; 12

Clutter suppression coeffi cient, dB

> 48

Measuring accuracy:


for range, m


for azimuth


for altitude, m




for range (at a range of 90 km), m


for azimuth


Number of targets tracked simultaneously

> 120

Operating environments:


free-air temperature range


relative humidity

98 %

above-sea-level altitude range, m

3 000

Mean-time between failures, h

> 800

Recovery time, min

< 30