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The "BUK" Ground Force Air Defense System

Target engagement, km






Single-launch kill probability for


fighter aircraft




cruise missile


Maximum velocity of targets being engaged, m/s


Response time, seconds


Missile velocity, m/s


Missile weight, kg


Warhead weight, kg


Number of channels per target


Number of channels per missile


Emplacement/displacement time, minutes


Number of missiles deployed on one carrier vehicle


The BUK ground force air defense system (NATO reporting name SA-11 Gadfly) is designed to operate in intense electronic countermeasure environments for defeating aerodynamic targets (LANS-type ballistic missiles objective) flying at low and medium altitudes at speeds of up to 830 m/s and maneuvering at up to 10-12g – at ranges of up to 30 kilometers. missile system is deployed with the armed forces of Ukraine and a number of other countries.

The BUK-M1 system includes:

  • Air defense guided missiles 9M38M1;
  • Command post 9S470M1;
  • Early warning and target designation radar unit 9S18M1 KUPOL-M1;
  • Self-propelled SAM launching system 9A310M1;
  • Launcher-loader module 9A39.

The 9A310M1 launcher provides a considerable improvement over the earlier 9A310, with the target detection, lock-on and autotracking range performance increased by 25-30%, and the target classification capability for aircraft, ballistic missiles and helicopters raised to 0.6 minimum. The 9A310M1 uses 72 literal illuminating frequencies (which is twice the number of illuminating frequencies used by the 9A310), enabling an enhanced resistance to jamming and self-interference. In contrast to the BUK 9S470 command post, the 9S470M1 is capable of concurrently receiving information from own early warning and target designation radar and data on six targets being tracked at a time, provided by divisional tank or motorized infantry air defense operations station. It also supports training requirement for air defense units attached to battalion through division level.

The 9S470M1 employs a more advanced 9S18M1 (KUPOL-M1) early warning and target designation phased-array elevation radar mounted on the GM-567M-type tracked chassis. The track chassis of the same type is also used as carrier platform for the air defense operations station, self-propelled launcher and launcher-loader. The early warning and target designation radar is 9.59 long, 3.25 m wide and 3.25 m (8.02 m deployed) high, and weighs 35 tons. Ukroboronservice, a state-owned enterprise in Ukraine, provides BUK-M1 overhaul services to the Ukrainian Armed Forces and foreign users. Ukroboronservice has drawn up overhaul manuals and purchased purpose-made bench maintenance equipment for BUK SAM systems.