Air Defence Missile System "Kvadrat"
FOR SUPPLY OF
AIR DEFENCE MISSILE BATTALION EQUIPPED WITH
AIR DEFENCE MISSILE SYSTEM KVADRAT
Military Air Defense Missile System KVADRAT is designated for air defense of the manpower and objects against enemy aircrafts flying at low and middle heights both at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
- self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance (СУРН) 1С91М2;
- self-propelled launcher (СПУ) 2П25М2;
- anti-aircraft guided missile 3М9М3.
- Transloader (ТЗМ) 2Т7М;
- mobile test station (КИПС) 2В8М1;
- transport machine (ТМ) 9Т227;
- set of mobile processing equipment №1 МС-1760М;
- set of mobile processing equipment №2 МС-1761М;
- universal compressor station УКС-400VВ
- air charger 9Г22М1;
- maintenance vehicle (МТО) 9В88М1(М2);
- control and measuring station (КИС) 2В7М1(М2)-«К» (control);
- control and measuring station (КИС) 2В7М1(М2)-«P» (repair);
- group set of SPTA 9Т454.
Missile guidance method - semi-active homing guidance.
Guidance method - proportional approach.
ADMS destruction zone parameters:
- by range - from 0.5 to 24 km;
- by height - from 0.05 to 15 km;
- by speed - to 600 м/s encounter,
- to 300 m/s pursuit.
- Deployment time on launching site after march - 5 min.
- Closure time with abandon of launching site - 5 min.
By structure, Air Defense Missile System is adopted in Air Defense Battalion, including:
- self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance (СУРН) 1С91М2 - 1 pc;
- self-propelled launchers (СПУ) 2П25М2 - 4 pcs.;
- transloaders (ТZМ) 2Т7М - 2 pcs.;
- anti-aircraft guided missiles 3М9М3 - 12 pcs.
To train the combat crew, the air defense battalion is additionally equipped with:
- training and functional anti-aircraft guided missile 3М9М3УД;
- dummy missile 3М9М3ГВМ.
In addition, each battalion is equipped with diesel power station 100kW type ПЭС-100 for external power supply of combat means, during maintenance, crew training and current repair.
Subject to supply: Air Defense Battalion consisting of:
- five air defense missile battalions,
- missile backup means (technical battery)
- maintenance and repair means (repair company).
Technical battery designed for preparation of anti-aircraft guided missiles type 3М9 to combat usage, periodical control of their state. The following means are adopted in technical battery:
1. mobile test station 2В8М1- 1 pc.;
2. transport machines 9Т227 - 5 pcs.;
3. crane - 1 pc.;
4. set of mobile processing equipment №1 МС-1760М - 1pc.;
5. set of mobile processing equipment №2 МС-1761М - 1 pc.;
6. universal compressor station УКС-400В - 1 pc.;
7. air charger 9Г22М1 - 1 pc.;
Repair company designed for all types of maintenance and current repair of ADMS combat means. The following means are adopted in repair company:
- maintenance vehicle 9В88М1(М2) - 2 pcs.;
- control and measuring station 2В7М1(М2)-«К» (control) - 1 pc.;
- control and measuring station 2В7М1(М2)-«Р» (repair) - 1 pc.;
- group set of SPTA 9Т454 - 1 pc.
Self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance 1С91М2
Self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance 1С91М2 includes: two radar stations - reconnaissance and target designation station (СРЦ) 1С11М2 and guidance station (СН) 1С31М2,
as well as the means of navigation support, terrain reference, mutual orientation, radiotelecode link with self-propelled launchers, TV optical viewfinder, autonomous power supply unit (gas-turbine electric generator is used), antenna lifting and horizontalizing systems.
Equipment of self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance is crawler-mounted on chassis type ГМ-568.
Radar station antennas are double-decked:
- on top - antenna of guidance station 1С31М2,
- at a lower level - antenna of reconnaissance and target designation station 1С11М2
- and can rotate by azimuth independently on each other.
To decrease the height of self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance in march, the post support of antenna assemblies is folded inside the crawler-mounted vehicle, and antenna column СН 1С31М2 is folded down, being located behind the antenna of reconnaissance and target designation station 1С11М2.
Reconnaissance and target designation station 1С11М2 represents by itself a coherent-pulse omnirange radar (scan rate - 15 rot/min)
SHF with two waveguide and transreceiving channels independently operating on spaced carrier frequencies, which emitters are installed in focal plane of single antenna mirror.
Target detection by Reconnaissance and Target Designation Station 1С11М2 and target designation delivery to Guidance Station 1С31М2 is provided when:
- target is located at distances from 3 to 70 km and
- at heights from 30 to 7000 m.
Pulse power of RTDS transmitter is 600 kW in each channel, sensitivity of receivers is about 10 -13 W.
Resultant scanning sector by elevation is about 20°.
For noise immunity purposes, the following is provided in RTDS 1С11М2:
- MTI and nonsynchronous pulse noise suppression systems,
- manual adjustment of receiving channel amplification,
- wobbling of pulse repetition frequency,
- transmitters carrier frequency tuning.
Guidance station 1С31М2 is presented by combined radar system and it consists of coherent-pulse tracker radar, implementing monopulse direction-finding method with by-turn plane switching and continuous radiation target illumination station, operating on one mirror-type antenna system.
Power of guidance station pulse transmitter 1С31М2 is about 270 kW,
Power of illumination transmitter is about 500 W.
Receiver sensitivity is about 10 -13 W.
Antenna beam width is about 1°.
Root-mean-square error (СКО) of target tracking by angular coordinates is about 0.5 angular gage division, by range - about 10m.
Station with 0.9 probability locks on a target of tactical fighter type at the distance up to 50 km for tracking.
Protection against passive noises and ground echo is provided by MTI system with programmed change of pulse repetition frequency,
against active noises -using the method of monopulse target direction-finding, noise indication system and station operation frequency tuning.
In such a case when Guidance Station 1С31М2 is still suppressed by active noises, target tracking is possible by angular coordinates by means of TV optical viewfinder, and range data can be obtained from Reconnaissance and Target designation Station 1С11М2.
Special measures for stable tracking of low-flying targets are provided in the station.
Weight of self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance with combat crew consisting of 4 persons is 20.3 tons.
Self-propelled launcher 2П25М2
A self-propelled launcher (СПУ) 2П25М2, mounted on chassis ГМ-578, has:
- gun carriage with three guide ways for missiles type 3М9 and electric power follow-up drives,
- computing instrument,
- navigation and terrain reference equipment, equipment of radiotelecode communication,
- AAGM prelaunch control equipment,
- autonomous gas-turbine electric aggregate.
Electric junction of self-propelled launcher equipment with AAGM is provided by means of two missile sockets which are cut by special bars at the beginning of missile movement along the guide way at launch.
During the prelaunch missile guidance towards the predicted meeting point of AAGM with a target, the gun carriage drives process the data from reconnaissance and target designation station 1С91М2 coming by radiotelecode link.
In transport position, AAGMs are placed with a tail part forward in the same direction as self-propelled launcher.
Weight of self-propelled launcher with three missiles and combat crew of 3 persons onboard is 19.5 tons.
Anti-aircraft guided missile 3М9М3
Anti-aircraft guided missile 3М9М3 is executed by scheme "all-moving wing". The rudders located on stabilizers are additionally used for control. Due to implementation of this scheme that required to apply a five-channel rudder drive, a size of all-moving wing and required power of rudder machine were successfully decreased and it became possible to use a light and compact pneumatic drive. Besides the rudder drive, turbine-driven power supply unit of onboard equipment also operates from onboard pressure air cell.
Missile is equipped with semi-active RF head 1СБ4М3 that can lock-on the target both before and after missile launch from the guide way of the launcher.
RF head tracks the target by Doppler frequency (missile speed approaching a target) and generates the control signals to aim AAGM on a target.
RF head suppresses a direct signal from illumination transmitterof self-propelled installation for reconnaissance and guidance and narrow-band filtration of reflected from target signal on the background of interference and jamming.
Protectability of homing head against intentional noises is provided by hidden monoconic target scanning and possibility of self-guidance on interference source in amplitude operation mode.
Homing head is located in front part of AAGM, at that the antenna diameter equal the midship section size of missile.
Missile is equipped with combined propulsion system: starting (first) stage -- solid propellant rocket engine, sustainer (second stage) - supersonic direct-flow air-breathing solid propellant jet engine (СПВРДТТ).
Gas generator chamber with engine charge of sustainer (second stage) is located in front. Combustion products of gas generator charge come into afterburner where fuel remains burn down in air stream coming through 4 supersonic air inlets. Air intake devices intended for supersonic operation conditions are equipped with conic central bodies. On launching site, prior the sustainer engine activation, the afterburner outputs of air inlet channels are closed by glass-plastic plugs.
Solid propellant charge of the starting stage is located in afterburner.
Due to gas-dynamic operation conditions of solid propellant engine on starting site and for activation of supersonic direct-flow air-breathing solid propellant jet engine on sustainer, a different geometry of afterburner nozzle is required, then upon completion of starting stage operation (3-6 sec duration), the internal part of nozzle aggregate is shooted off with a glass-plastic grid holding the starting charge.
Usage of supersonic direct-flow air-breathing solid propellant jet engine maintains high speed and correspondently high maneuverability of missile ЗМ9М3 on the whole territory.
High explosive fragmentation combat part is exploded by command from two-channel continuous radiation radio fuse.
Missile provides targets destruction that manoeuvring with overload up to 8 units.
Missile length is about 5.84 m, diameter 0.33 m, wing spread - 0.928 m, stabilizer spread - 1.2m.
Transloader (ТЗМ) 2Т7М is designed for transportation of three missiles 3М9М3 and for their loading on guide ways of self-propelled launcher 2П25М2.
Maintenance vehicle (МТО) 9В88М1(М2), control and measuring station (КИС) 2В7М1(М2)-«К» (control) and control and measuring station (КИС) 2В7М1(М2)-«Р» (repair) are designed for maintenance and current repair of equipment of Self-propelled Installation for Reconnaissance and Guidance 1С91М2 and Self-propelled launcher 2П25М2.
Mobile test station (КИПС) 2В8М1, crane 9Т31М1, set of mobile processing equipment №1 МС-1760М, set of mobile processing equipment №2 МС-1761М, universal compressor station УКС-400В, air charger 9Г22М1 are designed for preparation of anti-aircraft guided missiles 3М9М3 for combat use in field conditions and they make up a technical position.
Transport machine (ТМ) 9Т227 is designated for transportation of anti-aircraft guided missiles 3М9М3 both in transport containers or without them.