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Anti-aircraft Gun-Missile Complex "Tunguska" (SA-19 Grison)

tunguska Anti-aircraft gun-missile "Tunguska" (SA-19 Grison)

Anti-aircraft gun and missile system (ZPRK) 2K22 "Tunguska" is an independent highly mobile short-range multi-purpose complex designed to combat aircraft, helicopters, RC and RPV, lightly armored ground and sea targets in a complex electronic environment in any weather and climatic conditions during the day and night.

Its combat capabilities provide immediate cover for troops and individual objects in the offensive and defensive battle on the march and under the stress of air attack of the enemy with an extremely small, small and medium-sized partly heights.

The composition of anti-aircraft gun and missile system "Tunguska-M includes military assets and resources and technical support.

To combat assets include: 

  • Anti-aircraft twin set (ZSU) 2S6;
  • anti-aircraft guided missile 9M311 missiles in transport-launch container   (8 missiles on the ZSU);
  • 30-mm rounds with high-explosive, incendiary, and  HE-tracer rounds to 1524 and 380 pc. in Ammunition, respectively). 

 Тactical and technical specifications ZPRK "Tunguska"

Features ZSU "Tunguska"

Range of target detection SOC km


Range of automatic tracking of targets CH km


Impact area on the range, km:


- Missiles


- Cannon armament

0,2 – 4

Impact area on the height, km:


- Missiles

0,01 – 3,5

- Cannon armament

0 – 3

Slant range, km


Reaction time, with

6 – 8



- Missile units.


- 30-mm cartridges, pcs.


Weight SAM:


- No container, kg


- In container, kg


Warhead weight, kg


Technical rate of cannon fire, rds / min.

4000 – 5000

Vertical angle of fire from guns, hail.

- 10 - + 87

Muzzle velocity, m / s


Maximum speed shelled targets, m / s


Probability of hitting the SAM / Guns:


- Aircraft


- Helicopter, UAV


- KR


Maximum speed, km / h


Weight, t




The transfer to firing position from marching, min

до 5

BM ZSU 2S6 - autonomous fighting vehicle, capable of independently or according to the target instructions to detect air targets in motion, to determine their nationality and degree of danger, fire and destruction with a certain probability of fire guns or missiles(with short stop). If necessary, moreover, ZSU 2S6 can affect manpower and lightly armored ground (surface) enemy targets. 

The principal difference from the similar anti-aircraft short-range is to combine in a combat vehicle (BM), cannon and rocket weapons, opto-electronic means of detecting, tracking and fire control (radar detection, radar target tracking, terrestrial radio interrogator "friend or foe" the impact of optical equipment, a digital computing system and drives the guidance).

In addition, the ZSU equipped with built-in hardware fault monitoring, navigation, life support systems, communications, automation, as well as anti-nuclear, anti-chemical and biological protection. All the equipment and armament ZSU placed on the chassis of the multipurpose heavycrawler transporter (MT-T) with anti-armor, giving the car a high throughput, flexibility andsmooth running at speeds up to 65 km / h.

Combat Vehicle 2S6 consists of the following fixed assets:

  • cannon armament includes two 30-mm 2A38 automatic with the cooling system; 
  • missile, includes eight launchers with ammunition guides and 9M311 missiles in trasport-launching containers, encoder, hardware of selection coordinates; 
  • power hydraulic actuators pointing guns and SAM launchers; 
  • radar system consisting of radar target detection;
  • Radar target tracking;
  • Terrestrial radio interrogator;
  • Digital countably-solver; sighting and optical equipment with the guidance system and stabilization; measurement system of rolling and course;
  • built-in test equipment; Navigation equipment; life support systems, communications, automation and safety automatics, etc.

Station of targets detection - coherent pulse radar Omnidirection UHF waves. Provides target detection against a background of intense reflections from the underlying surface of the earth and of disturbance unambiguous definition of distance and the radial component of target velocity, it provides support for the range and azimuth, automatically issue data indicate feasibility of target tracking station and the current range of digital computing system in intense enemy uses of radio interference. 

Electro-mechanical stabilization of the antenna SOC is maintaining combat operation in motion. 

  • pulse transmitter power 7.10 kW 
  • receiver sensitivity of the order of 2x10-14 W 
  • the width of the antenna in azimuth and elevation angle of 5 ° and 15 ° respectively. it allows a station with a probability of 0.9 to detect a fighter in the altitude range 25-3500 m at a distance of 20 km with a resolution of 500 meters in range, 5-6 ° and 15 ° in azimuth and elevation, respectively. 

RMS errors of target coordinates do not exceed 20 meters in range, 1 ° and 5 ° in azimuth and elevation, respectively.

Station of target tracking coherent pulsed radars with dual waveband tracking system for angular coordinates andfilter selection of moving targets in the channels of auto rangefinder and angular auto-tracking. The coefficient of clutter suppression and clutter is 20-25 dB. Station with an antenna at the front of the tower, passes to the auto tracking, in the modes of targeting and search for targets in the sector of 120 ° in azimuth and 0-15 ° in elevation.

Pulse power of the transmitter station 150 kW, the receiver sensitivity - 3x10-13 W, width of chart orientation of antenna  2 ° in azimuth and elevation.

With probability 0.9 SSC canautomatically be accompanied by three coordinates of flying at altitudes of 25-1000 mfighter with a range of 10-13 km (according to the SOC) and 7,5-8 km, with self-sectoralsearch. At a resolution of better than 75 meters in range and 2 ° of angular coordinatesstandard errors of target tracking stations does not exceed 2 m in range and twodivisions of the protractor on the angle coordinates.

Both stations reliably detect and accompanying low-flying (hovering) helicopters. Operating at a height of 15 m at 50 m/s Helicopters detected STD with probability 0.5 at a range of 16-17 km, and from 11-16 km STT passes in automatic tracking. The last is able to determine the hovering helicopter, by Doppler change of frequency of the reflected signal from the rotating propeller and jump on his tracking of the three coordinates. Stations are equipped with safety equipment and can track targets in terms of enemy jamming through the sharing of radar and optical means . This and adherence to the norm frequency-territorial separation of operating frequencies of stations, can provide survivability of combat vehicles in the conditions of anti-radar missiles (ORS).

Digital Computer System (PCV) is designed to automate combat operation of ZSU,choosing the optimal mode of fire control system, weapons and fire regime, taking into account the range and target velocity.

30-mm anti-aircraft automatic shotguns 2A38 with forced cooling trunks are used for circular firing of air and ground (surface) targets in the vertical plane, from  -9° to +85°, in any combat and climatic conditions, using high-explosive/fragmentation- incendiary and fragmentation tracer shells.

On the rate of fire (4810 rounds per minute) and ammunition (1904 cartridge) ZPRKexceed their foreign counterparts. Each of the two machineguns has its own feeder rounds in each barrel of a common tapecartridge and a firing mechanism for impact action, serving alternately left and rightbarrels. Remote control shooting is carried out electrically. Cartridge belt loaded with HE fragmentation projectiles, incendiary and fragmentation of the tracer in the ratio 4:1, respectively.

Machines are reliable and provide trouble-free operation in temperatures from -50 ° to +50 ° C, in rain, ice and dust conditions, shooting without cleaning for 6 days with daily shooting of up to 200 rounds on an automatic mode and with dry (degreased) parts of automation. Without change of barrels, automat can provide production not less than 8000 shots in adherence firing 100 shots on auto mode and then cooled barrels. Muzzle velocity - up to 980 m/sec.

Solid-fuel missile 9M311 designed to attack air targets with a short stop and a place in their optical appearance.

It is made by bi caliber scheme with a detachable motor and semi-automatic radio command control system with manual target tracking and automatic output of a rocket on the line of sight.

Scheme missiles (the ratio of start and marching stages is 2:1, the absence of main engine) ensure reliable and accurate guidance missiles, reduced its weight and dimensions, simplified layout of onboard equipment and munitions. In the rocket used passive aerodynamic damping of the airframe in flight, which is ensured by correcting the contour of its management teams, coming in at a missile from a computer system ZSU.The propulsion system is designed as single-mode lightweight starter motor in a plastic case, which an 2.6 s of work said the rocket an initial velocity of 900 m/s and separated. To eliminate the haze of the optical line of sight goals flight of a rocket at the launch site is carried out on curved paths, using radio comands.

Sustainer stage rocket weighing 18.5 kg after the withdrawal to the line of sight targets continues its flight in the ballistic regime with a mean (maximum) speed and disposable overload 600 (910) m/s and 18 units respectively. This ensures that the defeat of high-speed (up to 500 m/s) and maneuvering with the overload of 5.7 units goals for thecounter and catch rates.

Defeat the purpose by fragmentation rod warhead with contact and noncontact laser fuses. To increase the effectiveness rod striking elements are enclosed in a shirt of prefabricated elements weighing 2-3 g, which form after its explosion shrapnel field.Warhead weighing 9 kg provides the cutting action of the elements of airframe and incendiary - the elements of its fuel system, and for small slips (up to 1,5 m) - explosive action.

Proximity target sensor (NDC) is a four semiconductor lasers with a photodetector. The firsts form an eight-directional pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the missile, while the seconds captures the reflected laser signal from the target. Range of confident response NDC reaches 5 m, a reliable failure - 15 m. It is cocked by radio for 1 km before meeting with SAM. Fuse, with a high probability of direct hit missiles at a target (60%), allows them to defeat, if necessary, ground and sea targets. In this case, the NDC before the start of missiles is off.

The composition of the on board equipment, in addition, includes the antenna-waveguide systems, electronic components, gyroscopic coordinator, steering gear box, tracer, the power supply. The control system of missiles at the height has no restrictions and to hit a target requires only its optical visibility.